M.Philippova Kronos - this is the name of the processor family, and this is the name of research group of people who carried out Kronos project. I was lucky enough to know these remarkable people for a long time and to work together with them. So I'll tell about Kronos group and Kronos computer. From the very beginning Now all members of Kronos group are reliable grown men. But in 1984 they were just a students of Novosibirsk university, lived in a student hostel and specialized on computer science in the different Academician institutes. No doubt, they dreamed of a personal computer (not per twelve person!). There were no IBM PC or any Soviet personal computer in the Soviet Union this time. That's because they decided to make a computer for their own needs. They wanted it to be powerful, but not very large: the room in the hostel had a floorspace 8x10 feet. Upon this time students acquainted with Niclaus Wirth work concerned architecture of his computer Lilith. The idea to design architecture for language seemed to them very alluring, and the first Kronos processor was born. It was assembled with parts of broken "Electronica-60" (LSI-11-like Soviet computer) in standard 'post box'. It means, that processor card was placed in one post box, memory card - in the second one, disk drive - in the third one, and there was a lot of different conductors which links all boxes. Nevertheless, the system operated. The creation received the name of titan Kronos from ancient Creek mythology. I suspect that the reason of this choice were kronosides. Kronoside is the holiday with hearty meal and drink, which Greeks made in honour of Kronos, who was the god of harvest and prosperity. The student work seemd interesting to Alexander Marchuk, the leader of a laboratory of Computing Center Institute. He invited the young men to work in the institute. Later within the precincts of the institute processor Kronos-2 and following versions Kronos 2.5 and Kronos 2.6 were designed. Also the operating system Excelsior and all applications for this hardware were created there. However it's possible that the main thing is not hardware or software. Initially Kronos group consists of four men - two mathematician and two physician. Later new people grown up on Kronos. Now some of them joined to the group, other work in the different institutes, but all of them absorbed "Kronos style" of programming and design. And what they obtained The architecture of KRONOS family processors is oriented to the support of the high-level languages (C, Modula-2, Pascal, Occam, Oberon) and thereby permit to design modern conceptions for computer application. 32-bit machine word allows one to use processors of the family for scientific researches. The hardware support of the interruption handler (for the events and processes synchronization) and compact code give surance that the processors of KRONOS family may be used successfully in the real-time systems. Any processor of the family may be used in a single computer or in a multiprocessing system as well. All processors were made of the Soviet chips. On the one hand, it gives the possibility to construct processors from 'materials at hand' without limitations in quantity, on the other hand, processors are limited in clock rate (3 mHz in 2.6 model). Nevetheless, felicitous architecture allows to rich about 1,6 thousands drystones at 2.6 model. Loving child: model number 2 KRONOS-2 was the first implementation of preceding concepts. It was embedded in "Electronica-60" computer and was compatible with its peripheral devices and memory. The processor was designed on 8-bit slice and other TTL-chips. This model had 32-bit word, and RAM upto 4Mbytes. The computer with Kronos-2 was very cheap. They were distributed among friends of Kronos group in whole country. This processor was also used in a few embedded systems (in Red Army). On Multibus KRONOS-2.5 is the development of KRONOS-2 processor distinguished by higher performance: 1 million instructions over stack per second. Interface with the external devices is performed via MULTIBUS 1. Really the 2.5 model was embedded in Labtam computer. It has a pleasant monitor and keyboard, and that's because the designers prefer to use exactly this model for home work. Kronos 2.6 and workstation Kronos 2.6 was designed for using in workstation. Now Kronos workstation exists, and everybody can buy it. In 1988 the informatics system department leadership suggested to Novosibirsk region authorities to produce Kronos workstations. Then the region communist leaders adviced to rename a computer with names 'Syberia' or 'Ob'. It was very funny, because these were the names of ... washing machines. Later the production of workstations was organized in another region. Workstation was oriented to professional programmers or computer designers, providing from two to four workplaces, but may be used as an administrating machine in nets, or as an production manager. It dependes of concrete configuration and external devices. Workstation may be reconfigurated easily for any specific case. The single-chip variant of KRONOS processor was not fulfilled, and it's sad, because it permits to provide the creation of systems with performance about 5 million instructions per second for each transputer element. The academician institute hasn't a possibility to produce chips. In any way, now it's too late. The Russian market filled with IBM PC, and it is very difficult to change this situation. About operating system Kronos software was written on Kronos from the beginning to the end. The name of operating system Excelsior reflects the principals of creation Kronos software. The system was rewritten more than once. The base language is Modula-2. Kronos softmen consider it is the best language for system design. It permit to create modular evolutionable systems. The modular organization provides quick reconfiguration of system depending of hardware devices and user needs. Excelsior is multiusers and multitask system. It is oriented to professional programmers (it does not exclude it usage in another purposes). So the main property of OS Excelsior is programmability. It is provided by different means, one of which is the dynamic program loading. Coupled with turbo-compilation it allows one to make the debugging cycle fantastically short. Programming system On my mind, the programming system is a language, a compiler realising this language, a collection of libraries, which allow one to write his own programs with another hands, and text editor. Language Kronos programmers use an extended version of Modula-2, so called 'Modula-X'. The extensions were added in language for program simplicity. For example, I like most of all such extension as sequence parameter, which allows to realize procedure 'print' with parameters for any case of life. Also I like the introduction of standard type 'DYNARR' - dynamic array, which deliver user from tiring and dangerous work with pointers. More detail all extensions were described in . Compiler & Text Editor It is difficult to separate compiler and text editor because turbo-compilation include both of them. Kronos text editor is universal. It valids for programs and for texts like this. Creating it, the authors hold a conception of saving of human intellect, which they consider as the most limited resourse. One can carry out a lot of actions using macros apparate. For example, for typing all words 'Kronos' in this text I pressed two buttons only. So it requires about 20 buttons to type program printing 'hello'. Two buttons more - and your program is compiled, two buttons more - and after typing its name program is working. Kronos Modula-compiler is a serious scientific work. Designer used non-trivial algorythms and principals in its realisation. But I have not read the text of the compiler, so I'll tell about it as a simple user. What I mean by the words 'fast computer'? When TopSpeed Modula compiler in IBM PC compiles my program, I go to drink tea or to talk with somebody, although this computer has about 10 mHz clock rate. Kronos Modula-compiler does not permit to weaken. For example, it compiles itself for 2 minutes (its size is about 9000 lines). An usual module of 200 lines has been compile practically in a moment. However, when I deal with program consisting of many modules, I can compile it parallel with another task. Libraries As stated above, to use libraries is a good way to write own programs with another hands. Library procedures are the building materials for user programs. Libraries save not only time, but a space, I means a disk space. Libraries entire to programs as modules. Because of dynamic program loading, it is not necessary to link modules in large image file, and so the libraries codes are stored at disk in a single copy. In addition, the experience showd that usage of the libraries educates young programmers in a good style of programming. Applications software For the last five years numerous application programs appeared for Kronos. Kronos bitmap graphic subsystem provided the designing of some variants of window managers and graphic editors. The topology editor and processor 2.6 were created just the same time, and the processor cards were laid out with the editor trasser. Now Kronos has computer-aided design system of machinery building which could concure with well-known products AutoCAD and CADKEY and other. This is multiwindows and multimodels high perfomance system. What does they do now Kronos group continious their work in some directions. Te first one are nets, including international channels, and the second one is Oberon system. There appears a problem of program portability to more distributed computers. In the desigion of the problem group have reached some success. I hope, that this one and the last events in politics will help Kronos group to join to the world computer science.